Fire in a building project is an unexpected situation that is either likely to arise, or with a high probability depending on professionalism and strategic plans put in place during the services installation phase of the project.
Fire science is the most critical aspect of Building services engineering because of its direct relation to life and property. Fire is the visible effect of the combustion process, which is a combination of heat, fuel, and oxygen in the right proportion.
Fire-Fighting System is a system deployed to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in building projects by removing any of the three components. An example is the use of fire extinguisher to remove oxygen content or water to relinquish the heat content.
Fire science study in building industry can thus be divided into two;
The Fire Suppression System
The Fire Protection System is also known as the Fire Alarm System. This system considers flame being the most destructive bye-product of fire to keep occupants informed of fire incept in the building. The system can be divided into three:
Digital Addressable System
The Fire Suppression System is concerned with the process of controlling a raging fire by an automatic or manual mode by specializing Fire-fighters or home occupants. This system can be divided into two:
The Water Suppression System
The Gaseous Suppression System
The Water Suppression System comprises of the sprinkler system, fire hydrant system, and the hose reel or hose cabinet system. The sprinkler system is an automatic system that can either be through the use of ordinary water or the less dense water call foam while the fire hydrant and the hose reel systems are the manual systems.
The Gaseous Suppression System comprises the use of chemical gas such as FM-200, CO2, Novak, or inert gases like Nitrogen, Argon, and Aerosol to control the fire. The system may be automatic, or a manual powder-based termed fire extinguisher system.
An integrated approach is required to consider the project type while planning, designing, and installing any of the systems.
It is also necessary for Building services engineers to have a sound understanding of the relevant design codes, standards, and, most often, the building insurance carrier requirements before undertaking any project.
The Standard describes which system is required for a project type and how it should be constructed. They are not mandatory, but serve as national recommendations, with some variation for regional climate. They are published by national organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association, popularly known as NFPA.
The Codes are the written rules and regulations that are adopted as law to specify when and where a standard is required. They are selected, modified, and enforced by States or local governments.
Common Codes and Standards in fire science include:
NFPA 1 Fire Code
NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
NFPA 12 Standards on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 13 Standards for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
NFPA 14 Standards for the Installation of Standpipes and Hose Systems
NFPA 15 Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection
NFPA 16 Standards for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems
NFPA 20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
NFPA 22 Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
NFPA 24 Standards for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances (Fire hydrant & underground piping)
NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
NFPA 54 National Fuel Gas Code
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code
NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code (This is actually a standard even though it is called a code)
NFPA 92 Standards for Smoke Control Systems
NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code
NFPA 101 Life Safety Code
NFPA 220 Standards on Types of Building Construction
NFPA 750 Standards on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
NFPA 2001 Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code
IBC International Building Codes
BS 1635, Recommendations for Graphic Symbols and Abbreviations for Fire Protection Drawings
BS 5266 Emergencyownload NFPA